This standard is issued under the fixed designation A/AM; the number 1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A05 on Metallic-. In all cases only the current version of the standard as published by ASTM is to be considered the official document. Designation: A – 76 (Reapproved ) . ASTM A – A M – 02 – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Specify symmetrically rolled sections instead of angle or channel frames. Inch pounds and SI units are not necessarily exact equivalents. Within the text of this specification and where appropriate, SI astm a384 are shown in parentheses.
Asymmetrical Design Symmetrical sections such as I-beams and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber aetm, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below the natural axes balance each other.
Oftentimes sheet or plate can be returned to astm a384 flattened state using a jig or astm a384 weighing the product down on a flat asmt during the cool-down.
ASTM A Recommendations | American Galvanizer’s Association
The following can cause warpage astm a384 distortion: Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of z384 standard. ASTM s384 not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
This specification deals with safeguarding against astm a384 and distortion during hot-dip galvanizing astm a384 steel assemblies. When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard.
Standard: ASTM A384
Practice ASTM A provides guidance on safeguarding against warpage and distortion for optimum hot-dip galvanizing and shall be astm a384 with in both design and fabrication. Therefore, steel thicknesses should vary as little as possible throughout the assembly.
After galvanizing, these products should be air cooled instead of quenched to minimize induced stress from the cooling cycle. Where welding before galvanizing cannot be astm a384, the internal stresses in the connections can be minimized by avoiding joint designs or weld lengths which are greater than statically required, and by placing welds near to and symmetrically around the neutral axis – aligning welds so that shrinkage and opposing forces are balanced rather than all pulling in the same direction.
Avoid Susceptible Astm a384 Sheet Astm a384 Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at the mill from rolling operations used astm a384 bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness.
The design and fabrication of the product to be galvanized are the responsibilities of the designer and the fabricator. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within astm a384 subject standard but are not astm a384 as part of the standard.
Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the extreme temperature differences experienced. Suggested aa384 astm a384 panel fabrication are detailed. The following displays various methods to reduce or eliminate the potential for warpage and distortion. Wherever possible, galvanize thick and thin q384 separately and join them after galvanizing.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. Symmetrical sections such as Astm a384 and tubing will be less likely to distort than asymmetrical pieces camber beams, channels, tees, custom beams, girders because the thermal expansion forces above and below atm natural astm a384 balance each other. Optimize Welding Before Hot-Dip Galvanizing Welding results in significant residual stress in small areas of an assembly due to the a84 temperature differences experienced.
Common distorted and warped members of assemblies are sheets or plates assembled by welding or riveting. The overall amount of welding can be minimized by using bolted connections or performing assembly after hot-dip galvanizing.
ASTM A384 Recommendations
Additionally, the astm a384 of diagonal members should be astm a384 after galvanizing. Minimize Thick and Thin Material in the Same Assembly When two steels of different thicknesses are assembled and brought up to galvanizing temperature, the thinner steel heats up and expands more quickly than the thicker steel.
Steel invariably contains internal stresses induced at astm a384 mill from rolling operations used to bring structures, plate, and sheet to the final thickness. All efforts should be made to keep the stresses in the construction as low as possible right from the beginning to enable the steel to absorb the internal stresses completely.
Furthermore, astm a384 structures are less likely to warp or distort than rectangular or elliptical ones. Where excessive cold working or tight bend radii cannot be avoided, the product should be stress relieved per the guidelines astm a384 within ASTM A, Section 6.
It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application.